The Existence Of Arakan

Preface About Identity: History is not God given and it is potentiality of man research and his conscience and historical evidences. The work of History research is humanitarian and academic concern.

Racial name is not God given, but there is a trend that the different ethnic groups invent their racial/ethnic name as their ethnic identity in order to enjoying their fundamental rights from their central Government. But it depends on demographic and geographical situation of the ethnic groups. Muslim is not a name of ethnic group because ethnic name not depends on Religion.  (Rohingya Historian)


Note About The Arakan: (compiled by The Sail)

The Land & people:
The land of the Arakan’s creation was 5 million years ago, and the origin people of Arakan entered from part of India in about 5,000 years ago.

At present two major ethnic races, the Rohingyas and the Rakhines (Maghs) inhabit in Arakan. The Rohingyas are Muslims and the Rakhines are Buddhists. Its unofficial total population now is more than 5 million, both inside and outside the country.  In addition there are about 2 lakhs tribal people [Saks, Dinets (Chakmas) and Mros (Kamais)] and 2 lakhs Burman people in Arakan.  The Rohingyas are mostly concentrated in the riparian plains of Naf, Mayu and Kaladan. Arakan is the only Muslim majority province among the 14 provinces of Burma. Out of the 7 million Muslim population of Burma half of them are in Arakan. (from History Background of Arakan)

Politic: Under different periods of history, Arakan had been an independent and sovereign monarchy ruled by Hindus, Buddhists and Muslims. Possibly the history of Arakan can be classified in the following manner into 10 periods; (1) 100-788 AD (Some Hindu dynasties), (2) 788-957 AD (Chandra Hindu dynasty), (3) 957-1430 (A Chaotic period of Mongolians, Buddhists and Muslims), (4) 1430-1784 AD (Mrauk-U dynasty of Muslims & Buddhists), (5) 1784-1826 AD (Burman Buddhist Rule), (6) 1826-1948 AD (British Colonial Rule), (7) 1948-1962 (Parliamentary Democracy Rule), (8) 1962-1974 AD (Revolutionary Military Government Rule),  (9) 1975-1988 (One Party Socialist Programme Party Government Rule), (10) 1988-1999 AD (SLORC/SPDC Military Government Rule).

 According to A. P Phayer and G.E. Harvey, the Arakanese kings established alternately capitals in eight different towns, transferring from one to another. They were successively at Dinnyawadi, 25 kings (146-746 AD); Vesali, 12 kings (788-994 AD); First Pyinsa (Sanbawut), 15 kings (1018-1103 AD); Parin, 8 kings (1103-1167 AD); Krit, 4 kings (1167-1180 AD); Second Pyinsa, 16 kings (1180-1237 AD); Launggyet, 17 kings (1237-1433 AD) and Mrauk-U, 48 kings (1433-1785 AD).  (from History Background of Arakan)

The Arakan Flag Design During Sanda-Thu-Ri-Ya King

The Arakan Flag Design During Sanda-Thu-Ri-Ya King


Arakan to Rakhine state:  In 1974 the Burmese Socialist Programme Party (BSPP)government of Ne Win constituted Rakhine State from Arakan Division to restoration of Rakhine Independence. The government also created 17 townships before this changes. More in 1983, Thandwe, Gwa, Taungup, Ponnagyan townships were defined as Muslim-free Zones by government.


Existence of Rohingya:
Between 7th Century
to 16th Century AD, tradings in Java, Malacca, Myanmar and Arakan were influenced by Arab traders. At the same time, the religion Islam was introduced there. When Islamic preachers arrived,  some of the first group in Arakan who accepted Muslim were moon worshippers, descendants of   “San-Da-Wan-Tha” and people of Sandathuriya king who ruled over Sandawantha-moon worshipers and Thuriyawantha-sun worshipers. (Researcher)

“In 680 AD after the war of ‘Karbala’ Mohammed Hanofiya with his army arrived at Arab-Shah Para, near Maungdaw in the Northern Arakan, while Kaiyapuri, the queen of Cannibals ruled this hilly deep forest attacking and looting the people of Arakan. Mohammed Hanif attacked the Cannibals and captured the queen. She was converted to Islam and married to him. Her followers embraced Islam en masse. Mohammed Hanif and the queen Kaiyapuri lived in Mayu range. The peaks where they lived were still known as Hanifa Tonki and Kaiyapui Tonki. The wild cannibals were tamed and became civilised. Arakan was no more in danger of them and peace and tranquillity prevailed. The followers of Mohammed Hanif and Kaiyapuri were mixed up and lived peacefully.” The descendants of these mixed people no doubt formed the original nucleus of the Rohingya Muslims in Arakan. (from Historical Background of Arakan)

In 788 AD, during the season of Wae Tha Li, many of Arab traders’ boats were demolished by cyclone and landed to an island. And the king of the land relocated them into the lands. Thus, they named that Island as ‘Raham Bre’ (In Arabic, helper island), today call as ‘Rambre Island’. (from historians)

In 887 AD, most of Arakaneses converted to Islam as the results of propagation from India. (from Arab history)

Later from Portugal slavery time, some people from Bangladesh including non-Bangladeshies, were brought into Arakan and sold as slaves to Arab traders and Arakaneses.

In 1430, the two large army groups of Bangal had been entered into Arakan to expel Burman occupiers and settled in Arakan. As, Arakan was invaded by upper Burman(Ava) king Min Khaung in 1404 and he refuged 24 years at Bangal professed himself into Muslim. Later, the Arakan king Narameik Hla@ Saw Mon expelled Burmese invaders by the help of general Wali Khan consisting tens of  thousands of  Bangal forces in 1429. However, general Wali Khan betrayed by taking the throne of Arakan and imprisoned the king Narameik Hla. After he escaped from prison, sought again from Bangal king and he reentered into Arakan by a second larger army led by general Sandhi Khan of Bangal king Nasiruddin Shah and then retook his throne in 1430. He designated himself Muslim title as Solaiman Shah and kept Arakan under the governor of Cittagong in order to prevent from foreign invasions. The readers could understand about how many Bangal soldiers and other ordinary people had been settled in that period once political, social, culture structures and goals changed. (according to former chairman of Burma Historical Commission, Lt.Col. Ba Shin)

In early 16th Century during the reign of Mrauk U, Indian Muslims missionary headed into Arakan and preached Muslim religion through village to village converting Islam. (from Rakine Razawin BE1282)

Thou, we can say today Rohingya is mixed stocks of Arab, Mongolia, Arakanese (Maghs) and clashed into Fore-Arian, Indo-Arian, Indo-Mongo. As Burma is originally home to firstly Pyu states and secondly Mon states. I would not make mention as some mix from Bengali as some states of Bangladesh (Cittagong) were well enacted and fell under Arakan for some periods and separated later.

Rohingya in Arakan is long rooted, can be proved by historical buildings with Mosques firstly built  in 7th Century AD, Muslim Kings ruled for 4 centuries in Arakan, and others of Islamic names of towns, villages, rivers and others, and some Rakine kings also used Islamic names in 14 Century. Otherwise, the latest DNA may prove their existences. Moreover, some buildings built by Arakanese Muslim combatants, can be seen today in Yangon and Mawlamyaing. (from Burman King Invasions)

The name of Rohingya is founded as the people from Roshang/Rohang-Arakan: Rohang-Gya (‘Gya’ is villager). Like ‘Rakhasa’ to ‘Rakkha’ to ‘Rakkhaing’ to Rakhaing (Rakhine). Like Arakan to Rakhine, Burma to Myanmar. Time by time, states, people, names, cultures, are changed based on determination by influences.



The official population in 2007 was 3,744,976, and in 2010 the population was estimated to be 3.83 million. The state is inhabited primarily by two major groups of people, the Rakhine ethnic group and the Rohingya ethnic group. According to Government Divisional Administration estimates, 10,33,212 Rohingya live in Northern Arakan State. The majority of the people of Arakan State are Buddhists, with the second-largest group being Muslims.

 The Burmese government estimates that in Arakan State, 59.7% of the population (22,35,750 people) is Buddhist, while 35.6% (13,33,212 people) follow Islam, and 4.7% (1,73,014 people) is constituted of people of other religions. The Muslim Rohingya primarily live in the Arakan region of the country where they constitute around 30% of the total population of Arakan State and speak a dialect distinct from Burmese and Bengali. Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) has an estimated population of approximately 58 million, 15 percent of which is Muslim. The majority of the people of Myanmar are Buddhists.

In Arakan State, the majority-ethnic Rakhine reside mainly in the lowland valleys, including Lemro, Kaladan, and Mayu, as well as Ramree and Manaung (Cheduba) Islands. The Rohingya primarily live in the northern part of Arakan State. Other Muslim groups include Kaman Muslims (indigenous to Myanmar) and Rakhine Muslims (descendants of mixed marriages with Rakhine Buddhists). There are also a number of other ethnic minorities, such as the Chin, Mro, Chakma, Khami, Dainet, and Maramagri, who inhabit the hill regions of the state. The state’s area is fairly sparsely populated, with very few large towns or cities. Sittwe/Akyab is by far the largest city in the state, and also the centre of trade. Other notable towns include Maungdaw, Buthidaung, Rathedaung, Mrauk-U, Kyaukpru, Thandwe, and Tounggok. Otherwise, the population is primarily rural, living in the lowland valleys, hills, and forests, or along the seacoast and coastal islands of the Bay of Bengal. Arakan State is the country’s richest region in terms of oil and natural gas deposits. (Source from MARGINALIZATION OF THE ROHINGYA IN ARAKAN STATE OF WESTERN BURMA)


Historical Buildings:

Historic Budder Mukam, It was built in 7th C and situated in today Navy base Camp of southern-Akyab


(Historic Budder Mukam (Pir Badar Sha), It was built in memory of the eminent Saint Allama Shah.
It was seized since 1978 and now in navy base camp, near by Sittwe-point, on the southern side of Akyab Island.
It was meditation place of saints, historian says it was built in 7th Century AD during Islamic preachers arrived. It was also the sign said told the Akyab Island appeared into large after the shrines.)
Another famous shrine one in Sittwe/Akyab is Babagyi Mosque (Babazi Shah Monayem of Ambari ) situated on the southern bank of Sittwe lake @ Kan-daw-gyi. It was also seized in about 1985 and occupied as military area. 

Stone structure Sandhi Khan Mosque, situated in Mintayabyin @ Kwan Lon, Mrauk-U, built in 1433 AD.

 (Stone structure Sandhi Khan Mosque, situated in Mintayabyin @ Kwan Lon, Mrauk-U. It was constructed in 1433 AD by Muslim army ( Gen. Sandhi Khan)who came to help enthrone Narameikhla. It was demolished by military in 1996 September.)

Stone stucture Majah Pali (a) Musa Pali Mosque, built in1513-1515


(Stone stucture Majah Pali (a) Musa Pali Mosque, construcred by an Indian missionary Musa in the time of 9th king of Mrauk_U 1513-1515 A.D. It stands Maungthagon Village, Mrauk-U. It was demolished by military in about 1983.)

An ancient Kadi Mosque in Paike-thae village, Kyauktaw, found in 14th Century AD

Language & Literature:
Arabic is a main script for Muslims around the world, thus Arab traders introduced Arabic language in Arakan. Later Persian language (sub Arabic), Urdu (sub-Arabic) and English language used in colonial period, now lately in Burmese but not in Bengali script.  As Rohingya’s culture, tradition, script, were destroyed due to unavoidable violations in every power transition periods. Mostly from other parts of Rohingyas where mostly Rakhines speak dialect in Rakhine language and Burmese in many cities so that today Rohingya learn Burmese script from their education and Arabic and Urdu from religious class. Latest script of Rohingya is yet to be form. Some exile groups in developed countries have introduced ‘Romanized Alphabet-Rohingya Script’, example in Australia.

The other Historian says, the first written Rohingya language was more than 1300 years old and it used Arabic script. The sixth century Niti Chandra inscription and Vira Chandra inscription of Vesali, Arakan were written in Rohingya language stating the yedhamma verse of the messenger Prophet. However during the long colonial period under British rule, Urdu, Arabic and English were the main popular languages used for writing. (Historian)

Similarly, India descendent religion Buddhism Rakhine or Burmese used India-Brami words to Pali-subbrami to complete Burmese script today was based from the Mon script.

Others minorities speaking in the Rohingya dialects are  Mro, Thet or Chakma, Khami, Dainet, and Maramagri. Amongst them, the Rohingya people are Muslim and therefore, the problems remains for the Rohingya only.

If we look a back, we would found that the God Buddha is the son of king ‘A-Taw-Ka’ and began from Biha-India, and preached firstly into Arakan and later to upper Burma in Burma. Thus, significant groups like Dianet, Maramagyi and Hindu are seen as the first class, the Arakanese Rakhine is the second class and later Burman from upper Burma is the third class, are indisputable ranks in Buddhism, such as ‘thayrawada’ and ‘mahayana’ in religion. Undeniable that today the dialect of the Rohingya is close to the first class groups of Buddhist.

So, we found that Cittagong-Bengali dialect close to Arakanese Rohingya, but close means different language and not same and need translation. Ironic in many reports, easily reporting that the Rohingya dialects related to Cittagonian. As an example, Thai, Lao, Shan-Burma languages are close in script (written) and dialect, but different language. Cultures, civilization, territory, language, are totally different while Nepali, Butane and Bengali Languages have similarity with Hindi scripture but expression is far way from each other. (The New Fortune)


The Rohingya were recognized as an indigenous ethnic community by the Burma’s first prime minister U Sao Shawe Thaik and again repeated the declaration as an indigenous ethnic community of Myanmar by U Nu government in 1954.  (A History of Arakan, Past & Present)
But, the 1982 citizenship law  denied the Rohingya to be a national ethnic group or full citizenship.   As well as,  others types of Muslims in Burma are also applied similarly. They are also like Rohingyas not allow to recourse to become new citizenship with  own identity under the new constitution act.

In 2003 Nov, Malaysia Foreign Minister Datuk Seri Syed Hamid Alber had been concerned about Rohingyas but Myanmar Government is not willing to accept and Embassy of Myanmar Counceller U Khin Maung Lynn said that Rohingya is not among from Ethnic groups and infected from Bangladesh in 1970s.

Burma citizenship law denied citizenship to member of Muslim minority in Arkan State, generally known as “Rohingya”. (“according to a join statement release by six independent human rights expert in 04 April 2007”).

A Letter on 9 Feb 2009, A Burmese diplomat by the name of Ye Myint Aung at the Burmese Consulate in Hong Kong used very politically incorrect language in describing the Rohingyas, an Muslim ethnic minority that has created controversy for the Burmese government, because they are not recognized as Burmese but as Bengali immigrants. Ye Myint Aung, in the letter above, refers to the Rohingyas as very “dark brown” and as “ugly as ogres.”

However, the Rohingya’s long rooted in Arakan is considered as an indigenous ethnic group of Arakan rather than the Burmese ethnic.
Today Rohingyas sprung up and seeking refuge from the world but the Refugee Agency remains through ignoring their plights by turning to the other issues of around the world. The fact that Rohingya belief, Rohingya is not one of the group prioritized by developed countries.

A short Point of  Earlier than others: Tibeto-Burman speaking Burmans, or the Bamar, began migrating to the Ayeyarwady valley from present-day Yunnan‘s Nanzhao kingdom starting in 7th century AD. Filling the power gap left by the Pyu, the Burmans established a small kingdom centred in Bagan in 849. But it was not until the reign of King Anawrahta (1044 – 1077) that Bagan’s influence expanded throughout much of present-day Burma. It was also known as Burma’s first emperor, Bagan Dynasty.
After Anawrahta’s capture of the Mon capital of Thaton in 1057, the Burmans adopted Theravada Buddhism from the Mons. The Burmese script was created, based on the Mon script, during the reign of King Kyanzittha (1084 – 1112). Prosperous from trade, Bagan kings built many magnificent temples and pagodas throughout the country – many of which can still be seen today.
Bagan’s power slowly waned in 13th century. Kublai Khan‘s Mongol forces invaded northern Burma starting in 1277, and sacked Bagan city itself in 1287. Bagan’s over two century reign of Ayeyarwady valley and its periphery was over. (source:


Other Groups: other facts Between Muslim and Others:

There are Thet, Mru, Khami, Dainet, Maramagyi ethnic groups in Arakan, are also speak in Rohingya dialects, but they are not violated because they are being non-Muslims. In detail,

  • 19th Century descendent from Han-China, Wah are recognized and given citizenship.
  • 18-19th Century descendent from Muslim-China, Panthey, are not recognized and but given foreigner-ship.
  • 18th Century descendent from Malay , Pashu, are not recognized but given citizenship.
  • Later from Colony war, non-Muslims are recognized and given citizenship but Muslims are not recognized and given temporary card.
  • 17th Century descendent from India-Archer, Kaman, are recognized but given to few and disputation is still existed.

Because of the Rohingya are not being religious of them, they were being expelled by Burma rulers and often by local groups causes of instigations. However, how deny by military government, the root cause and historical existences, proves will not be dimmed forever.
If we have mechanism which can generate changes in Burma with people elected government firstly with initiation of genuine federal democracy system which could grantee the dignity and the rights of the entire people and sustainable economic gains, Rohingya could found their rights!

However, the Democracy means majority representatives therefore acception of millions of Rohingya refugees from around the world is unrealistic, no matter who rule in the future.


The Slang Word ‘Kala’: (by MSD-KN)
In philology, the word ‘kala’ is origin from pali-word and its correct spelling is (ku-la / ukvm;), but not as (kuu-la / ul;vm).’.  Pali is a Middle Indo-Aryan language or prakrit of India. It is best known as the language of the earliest extant Buddhist scriptures.. 
In detail;
ku (uk)                                    is                      health/treatment/medication
la (vm;)                                   is                      professor

If bound in one word, Kula   means Treatment Professor or Medical Professor (in Pali-word). So, it is meaning as treatment officer in combining or descendent of racist Buddha. Therefore, the God-Buddha is an Indian descendent and son of ‘A Tow Ka’ king, and a kala too.
If someone called to someone as kala, s/he would be angry. But, someone welcome because of the person proud to be a racist of God-Buddha.
Emotionally, the word kala was most popular and used for Asia-Chinese when the time natioanlization in Burma in 1960 and Indian-Burman Roit in 1930-38 (known as Coolie Strike). Other in ‘The Thaluan Myanmar-English Pocket Dictionary’ produced by U Win Naing in Nov 2000, translated the word ‘kala’ as native of India. If so, Rohingya is being native Indian who are origin native of Arakan firstly entered from India in about 5,000 years ago.

Also, different ethnic group from Arakan-Burma are using the word ‘kala’, to Rohingya Muslim people from Arakan-Burma. Later, this usage broadens into new society and widely using ‘kala’ to Muslim, Hindu and foreign people as well. Ironically,  they never use when face by face but widely use at when behind or as far  as those-‘kala’, that-‘kala’. As, they misspell  ‘ku-la’ and accusing such groups as migrants. For Example: It was sophisticated as ;
Ka-la-fru     (ukvm;jzL)  to white people  (white ka-la)
Ka-la-mae   (ukvm;rJ)   to black people   (black ka-la)

Regarding this, later of 1992, the military Junta has widely accused to Noble Laureate Aung San Suu Kyi as ‘kala fru mayaa Suu Kyi’ (‘fru’ is white and ‘mayaa is wife in Burmese).  Accusing that wife of a white kala from European.  And it is publishing widely in Burmese newspapers.
Definitely, it is verbally insulting and so you are the best person to decide whether true or false. But, you would not find this usage in developed society.

We have the latest note from our first Prime Minister, a Shan ethnic, U Saw Shawe Theit saying that if Rohingyas are not our ethnic, none of us will be ours. Beside this, we must acknowledge that written words in scriptures were not written in today literature but the writer wrote with today literature to understand better therefore, we must confirm these facts whether true or not.

The below is  letter sent to new Burma’s prime minster Thein Sein and its defends the existance of Rohingya long rooted. Letter to Thein Sein


Questions & Answers
1) Unknowing of Burmese official language  or literature?
(by Thida)
Basically, a citizen of the nation is keen to know its official language. But, the people from like where practice full democratic rule are using native language rather than its official language. We have many examples, one of that is Tamil Nadu from Mizo state is part of world No.1 democratic country, India.
So, there are many ethnics and its individual has own language and literature in Burma, and it is not being part of important while the military rulers did not welcome the developing processes of opening schools, transportations, rescue works, communications even self reliance processes. And it was defined as national language and religion in later of 1974.


2) Problem on Rohingya? (by ASN)
Perception is that Ethnic Identity of an individual in every society is the result to involve a sense of loyalty to’ and tend to base their definition and interpretation of social reality on their ethnicity. However, Muslims in Burma has no problems to become Burmese Muslims or Rakhine Muslims or Arakanses Muslims.
The existing problems are not for ‘Rohingya’. We, Burmese people know Rohingya but strange with the term ‘Rohingya’. If it is trued, have you heard that Rohingyas in Burma claimed themselves as Rohingya. If not, so why the rulers of Burma defined them as Bengali instead of Burmese or Rakhine Muslims.
Worst in later of 1962, the root causes is that country rulers denied their rights and dignity and demolished their existences and trying to blend them as Bengali while depopulation of Rohingya and burmanizing are in practice, in the absent of public(neighbours) supports.


3) Impact in recognition? (HR-Fd)
If we do not recognized Rohingya, Rohingya would be isolated as well as the land which belong to them, thus, it can not be achieved the unity of our nation what we need today both in lower and upper Burma even to restore the origin of the Arakan state.
We must also acknowledge that the country’s recognition on the other groups later than Rohingya.


4) Overcrowding in ‘Mayu’ Frontier region? (by ASN)……                                                                                                                                                                                             There are 3 townships which situate along the Mayu River namely; Maungdaw, Buthidaung and Rathedaung, were named as Mayu Region or District.

Violations against Arakanese Rohingyas mostly in every power transition period, communal riot, political occasion, made them to flee to neighbour countries and the exoduses into Bangladesh had been unforgotten. Relating to this, unavoidable conditions engaged them to relocate mostly in border lands such as Maungdaw, Buthidaung and Rathedaung rather than in their origin lands. Whereas, they remained in theses regions overcrowdingly. Amongst them, those displace patriotic Rohingyas had claimed for restoration of their rights and demands included relocation at their origin home land. Most of them are from Rohingyas and Rakhines who fled during Burma Bodawpaya king conquered the Arakan in 1785, were allowed to re-enter in 1824 when the British rule was installed.

After British troops retreated to India by end of March 1942, the Rakhine comunalists led by commissioner U Kyaw Khiang connivance with Burma Independence Army (BIA) led by Bo Ran Aung brought a pogrom massacring and drove-out them to east Bangal. On 9 June 1942, Rohingyas from Maungdaw, Buthidaung and Rathedaung drove-out BIA and Rakhine comunalists then declared North Arakan as a Muslim State on 10 June 1942. The British Military Administration declared similar as Muslim national Area on Dec 1942 and promised to grand autonomy. In 1945, our Independence Father General Aung Sann’s summons achieved to re-enter some Rohingyas who were driven in 1942. But, today dictator military rulers and Rakhine historians untruely quote them as resent infiltrators.

As a result of Rakhine control many town through Arakan, the Mujahid Party was founded by popular singer Jafar Hussain. It gained influenced in 1950 against the Burmese central government therefore the government finally appeased by offering some governmental posts and a special district call ‘Mayu Frontier District’.

On 1st May 1961, Burmese government created Mayu Frontier District covering Maungdaw, Buthidaung and western part of Rathedaung townships. It was not autonomy by a military administration.

In 1962 March, general Ne Win cancelled to grant state-hood of Arakan and abolished MFD on 1st feb 1964.


5)Terror In Burma? (by Soe Myint)

There are presently 33 National Arms groups in Burma and none of Muslim groups is involved. They can be seen as 13 cease-fire groups and 20 non-cease-fire groups. Non-cease-fire groups are SSA, SSNA KNU, KNLA, KNNP, ABSDF, DBKA, MTA, MNLA, MNDAA are major groups and PSLA, ALP, LDF, WNA, HRP, M-TUF, LNO, NSCN, CNF, NUPA are smaller group. Cease-fire groups are UWSA, KIA, NMSP, NDA-K, MNDAA, MKO, KDA, PNO, PSLP, KNG, KNPLF, KNLP and SNPLO.

Professional inquiry into who are they accurately and behaviors, found that no group’s behaviors is terrorized for either Burma or its own people.

The results of the country has multi ethnic groups, they each has their own rights which can’t be deprived by Burman or country ruler. Originally, their own culture, language, tradition, territory are going to be lost by ethnic cleansing by means of Burmanizing policy which make up 86% of today major population.

The changed of Federal government of the country into central control and origin of several cultures of different ethnic groups into a truely Burmese national culture, lead to establish patriotic defense army for own community, is leading on the right path in deed. Thus, they might not be named as rebel or guerilla group. And no group or an individual should quote them as terror group.

In Rohingya, a short lived ‘Mujahid’ movement in the early 1950s had not received widespread support of Rohingyas. But although the ‘Mujahid’ movement dissolved by Federal government’s engagements in May 1961 and northern regions (Maungdaw, Buthidaung, and Rathedaung) is separated as ‘Mayu Frontier Administration (MFA)’, later Revolutionary government’s oppressed roles lead hundreds of thousands of Rohingyas into neighbor Bangladesh. It needed to preserve against Burmese oppressions therefore some Rohingyas established the Rohingya Patriotic Front (RPF) in Bangladesh in 1973.

Later in Bangladesh, RPF splitted into an armed trained Rohingya Solidarity Organization (RSO) and Arakan Rohingya Islamic Front (ARIF). RSo did not received certain support from Rohingya community and its leaders were settled-down in Europe. Despite RSO received international supports and funds,  it ended up by exploitation of international funds and Rohingya plight. That made RSO itself to disolve from an armed group as well as to work on possible platform as demand by Rohingya community. Hereafter, some of the rest of its members left in Bangladesh founded social organizations called Rohingya Liberation Organization (RLO) and Arakan Rohingya National Organization (ARNO) in order to gain its community supports.

Side by side, in Rakhine, ALP and NUPA are  armed groups  and confronting for their courses.  The other groups like United Mara liberation Party, Rakhine Pray Communist Party and Democratic party of Arakan were  disappeared when ARIF, RLO of Rohingya organizations were also disappeared. Today therefore no Rohingya armed organization is existing both in home or exile.

However, Rohingyas are wrongfully accused as terror group by today extremist group and some individual, as well as, the above mention groups are also accused similarly. Regarding this, the Australian security analyst Andew Selth has pointed out in 2003 that “any Muslim in Burma had been connected terrorism incident even though they are likely to be terrorized by the Burmese military than to be terrorists. And another recommendation by World Human Rights Watch (WHRW) is that “a few numbers of those who travelled to Middle East were evidently not returned as any Jihadist designs”.


THE ORIGIN OF RAKHINE ..(from Historical background of Arakan)

In the year 957 AD, a Mongolian invasion swept over Vesali, and killed Sula Chandra, the last king of Chandra dynasty. They destroyed Vesali and placed on their throne Mongolian kings. Within a few years the Hindus of Bengal were able to establish their Pala Dynasty. But the Hindus of Vesali were unable to restore their dynasty because of the invasion and migrations of Tibeto-Burman who were so great that their population over shadowed the Vesali Hindus. They cut Arakan away from Indians and mixing in sufficient number with the inhabitants of the eastern-side of the present Indo-Burma divide, created that Indo-Mongoloid stock now known as the Rakhine Arakanese. This emergence of a new race was not the work of a single invasion. But the date 957 AD may be said to mark the appearance of the Rakhine in Arakan, and the beginning of fresh period.

The new English Dictionary states that the word Mog, Mogen, Mogue appear as names of Arakan and the people in 15-16th centuries.  Today the Maghs of Arakan and Bangladesh disown this name because the word Magh became synonymous with sea pirates. For more than two centuries the Maghs of Arakan were known as sea pirates in Bengal. The Maghs earned such a bad name during the last many centuries that it has become a great shame for their descendants of today to own the name Magh. Thus they started calling themselves Rakhines. But according to Phayre, the name Magh originated from the ruling race of Magadha and also a well-known poet of Rosanga (Arakan), Dault Kazi (1622-38) mentioned in his Sati Mayna that the kings of Arakan belonged to Magadha dynasty and was Buddhists by faith.

According to the Maghs of Arakan, they are descendants of Rakkhasa (bilu); the aborigine of the land and the name of their country is Rakkahpura. Ethnically most of the Arakanese Magh belongs to the Mongoloid race. Ethnologists point out that north-western China, the cradle land of mankind between the upper courses of the Yang-Tse-Kiang and of the Hoang-Ho rivers was their earliest home. They entered the area, now known as Burma, through the upper courses of the Irrawadi and Chindwin in three successive waves. In making this entry they encountered the local Mon-Khmer and by defeating them they settled in Burma. However, Arakan Yoma Mountain separates the Arakanese Maghs from the parent stock. Though descended from the same stock, worshipping the same faith and speaking the same language as the Burmese, the Arakanese Maghs have a distinct culture and have preserved a distinct dialect. Hence the Arakanese Maghs of the northern section, close to Bangladesh, exhibit the original Mongoloid features in lesser and subdued degree than their southern brethren. Whether these ethnic differences are due to the intermixture of race or ecological and other factors it is not known. The Arakanese Maghs are short in stature, whose height rarely exceeds five feet six inches. The body seems to be stocky with relatively short legs and body; cheekbone is high and broad. Females are flat chested with thin lips. Black straight hairs, brown small eyes and flat nose are common features of the present-day Rakhine Magh population.

The spoken language of Rakhine Magh is not a separate language but pure Burmese with phonetic variation. Historians commented on the Rakhine language as follows:

“The question of the emergence of the Arakanese Rakhine language is more difficult. No inscriptions in the Burmese script are found in Arakan before 11th and 12th centuries. Whether it was the language of the Mongolian invaders of 10th century or whether it filtered across the mountains after contact with Burma in the 11th and 12th centuries is undecided. As Rakhine language is the same language as Burmese, being merely a dialect, to suppose that it was the language of the invaders is to contend that the Mongolians who extinguished Chandras spoke afterwards became predominant in the Irrawady plain. If the country is postulated, and it is argued that the Burmese language, coming over the mountain road, impinged upon the Mongolian speech of the then Arakanese and created modern Arakanese, linguistic difficulties are raised which are difficult to solve. This question awaits judgement.”

King Anawratta of Pagan (1044-77 AD) conquered North Arakan, but it was not incorporated in his kingdom. It remained a semi-independent feudatory state under its hereditary kings. When Pagan fell in 1287 AD Arakan asserted its independence under the famous Minhti, whose regime, according to the chronicles, lasted for the fabulously long period of ninety-five years (1279-1374 AD). His reign is also notable for the defeat of a Bengali raid. After his death Arakan was for a considerable time one of the theatres of war in the great struggle between Ava and the Mon kingdom of Pegu. Both sides sought to gain control over it. First the Burmese, then the Mons, placed their nominees on its throne.      

(updating more)




  • Colonel Simon Wilce  On May 15, 2010 at 7:20 pm

    How can we help you ?

  • Yasmine Ara  On November 16, 2011 at 3:26 pm

    To Colonel Simon Wilce, we, Rohingya just want all our friends to stand simply by truth and justice sincerely which we have been lost decades ago. If your heart is really in there you probabbly could do a lot, loads of things, even if which is a single word, that will do because imagine we are aliens in our own mother land just simply because of our belief. We have been facing slowing burning genocide systematically by ruling regimes decades by decades still now. The whloe world is still turning blind eyes. All our generations have been degenerated gradually. Friend, how could you help for that? The answer’s lying in you vividly, my friend. My personl experience is I was alien since before I was born becasue of 1982 general Nay Win’s made citizenship law. Of cause we need help from all humankind to restore all our rights which we desrved as human beings.

  • Mohammad Rauf, Jeddah, KSA.  On May 17, 2012 at 4:55 pm

    I really appreciate with your excellent notes. It tells the truth of our reality that needs to know for all Rohingya, Rakhine and international community. Truth is truth and never can be hidden.
    I would like to suggest keeping on adding more update. We Rohingya a day will reach our goal with no doubt. Thanks a lot……
    Mohammad Rauf, Jeddah, KSA.

  • Faisal Alam  On May 18, 2012 at 9:01 am

    we need a charismatic leader to come forward. Rohingya are in diving.We will gain international support day after day more. Waiting for him

  • Elaine Allan  On May 18, 2012 at 10:29 pm

    Besides saying supportive things to you, and explaining your situation to others so as to make them familiar with your problem (which some of us living in other countries have already done and continue to do), what can we do to help? You know: a concrete list of ideas, or tasks, or suggestions.

  • Santanu Maramagyi  On November 18, 2014 at 1:42 pm

    Can you write something about Marmagyi ethnic group history?


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